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Isipiliyoni Sokukhiqiza Seminyaka eyi-16

Iminyaka emihlanu yokwehliswa kwamandla, insimbi yokwehlisa isisindo ibheke emuva

Muva nje, iKhomishini Yetekutfutfukiswa Kwelive neLuhlelo kanye neLitiko Letetimboni Netheknoloji Yetemniningwane bamemetele kutsi batawuhlela kuhlolwa kwelive lonkhe “kubuka emuva” kwekuncishiswa kwetinsimbi tensimbi kanye nekwehliswa kwekukhishwa kwensimbi lengakahlanjululwa nga-2021. I-Information Technology, iphinde yathi kuzungeze umgomo "wekhabhoni ombaxambili", kuyadingeka ukunciphisa ngokuqinile ukukhishwa kwensimbi engahluziwe. Phakathi neminyaka emihlanu yokwehlisa umthamo wokukhiqiza, imboni yensimbi ibhekene nezinguquko nezinselelo ezintsha.

Iminyaka emihlanu yokuncipha “bheka emuva”

"Kusukela ngo-2016, kuzothatha iminyaka emihlanu ukunciphisa amandla okukhiqiza insimbi engahluziwe ngamathani ayizigidi eziyi-100 kuya kweziyi-150." Lona ngumgomo obekiwe ngaphambili obubekwe “Emibonweni yoMkhandlu Wezwe Ngokuxazulula Amandla Akweqile Embonini Yensimbi Nensimbi Ukubona Ukuthuthukiswa Kobunzima.

NgoMashi 1, uXiao Yaqing wethula esithangamini nabezindaba ukuthi kusukela ngonyaka ka-2016, isu “lokususa kathathu, ukunciphisa okukodwa kanye nesengezo esisodwa” lenze inqubekela phambili ebonakalayo ekwehliseni umthamo wokukhiqiza insimbi, osuvele ucindezele amathani ayizigidi eziyi-170 omthamo wokukhiqiza insimbi. Kuyaqondakala ukuthi inani eliphelele lokukhiqiza insimbi engahluziwe elihoxe "kumabhizinisi e-zombie" selifinyelele kumathani ayizigidi ezingama-64.74.

Ukuze kwenziwe kangcono isigaba esilandelayo sokuncishiswa kwamandla, ngo-2021, kuzokhishwa inguqulo entsha yezwe lami yokuqaliswa kwezinyathelo zokushintsha amandla wensimbi kanye nokufakwa kwamaphrojekthi wensimbi neminye imibhalo ebalulekile ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuthi inani lokukhiqizwa kwensimbi selincishisiwe kuphela .

Ukulawula isilinganiso sokushintshwa kuyindlela ebalulekile yokufeza inhlanganisela engokwemvelo yokuvinjelwa kwamandla amasha okukhiqiza nokulungiswa kwesakhiwo. Ngokwe-data, selokhu kwaqaliswa ukusebenza kwe-Implementation Measures for Capacity Replacement in the Iron and Steel Industry ngo-2018, kusukela ngo-2020, amathani ayizigidi eziyi-16.25 womthamo wokukhiqiza insimbi ahoxisiwe, kuphume inetha elingamathani ayizigidi ezingama-26.3, sekukonke isilinganiso sokuphuma esingu-1.15: 1.

Ukuhlanganiswa nokuhlelwa kabusha nakho kuqhubeka kahle. Ngonyaka odlule, iChina Baowu yahlela kabusha ngokulandelana iMaanshan Iron and Steel kanye neChongqing Iron and Steel ukukhulisa indawo yayo. UJiangsu Xuzhou uhlela ukwengeza nokuhlanganisa amabhizinisi wensimbi nensimbi ayi-18 ukwakha izinhlanganisela ezi-2 ezinkulu zensimbi nezensimbi phakathi nonyaka, futhi kuzuzwe ukwehliswa okungaphezulu kwama-30% kumthamo wokukhiqiza insimbi ngo-2020.

Inhloso yangaphambilini yokwehlisa amandla okusinda ngokweqile ifinyelelwe. “Ukubuyela emuva” kulo nyaka kokuncishiswa kokuncipha kwensimbi kulo nyaka kuzogxila ekuhlolweni kokuqaliswa komsebenzi wokuncipha kwensimbi nokulungiswa kwazo zonke izifunda ezifanele kusukela ngo-2016. Okubalulekile ukuxazulula amandla omkhiqizo wensimbi okweqile nokuhlasela “izifunda”. Ukuvalwa kanye nokuhoxiswa kwemishini yokuncibilikisa ethintekayo kwi "Steel".

UQin Yuan, isazi sezomnotho, utshele intatheli yeBeijing Business Daily ukuthi ngenqubo yokwehlisa umthamo wokukhiqiza insimbi kule minyaka emihlanu edlule, "insimbi yaphansi" isusiwe futhi yahoxiswa ngokuphelele emakethe. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ezinye "izinkampani zensimbi zombie" zasuswa, kwathi enye ingxenye yavuselelwa ngemuva kokuhlanganiswa. Ukuhlungwa kwemboni yensimbi kuqhubekile nokwanda, futhi izimpahla nezikweletu zenani elikhulu lezinkampani zensimbi nakho kwenziwe ngcono futhi kwalungiswa.

Yize kube nemiphumela esobala, iKhomishini Yezentuthuko Nezinguquko kanye noMnyango Wezimboni Nobuchwepheshe Bolwazi nabo bakhombisile ezindabeni ukuthi okunye ukuphikisana okujulile kulo mkhakha akukasonjululwa ngokuyisisekelo. Ngasikhathi sinye, ngokwenziwa ngcono kwezinzuzo zemboni yensimbi, ezinye izindawo namabhizinisi anesifiso sokwakha ngamehlo engqondo amaphrojekthi wensimbi, futhi ukuhlanganisa impumelelo yokuncishiswa kwamandla kubhekene nezinselelo ezintsha. Inhloso yalo msebenzi ukuqondisa izinkampani zensimbi ukuthi zilahle indlela ebanzi yentuthuko yokuwina ngobuningi nokukhuthaza intuthuko esezingeni eliphakeme embonini yensimbi.

Mayelana nezinkinga ezisele, uQin Yuan uhlaziye ngokuthi ngokususwa kwamabhizinisi ampofu, inzuzo yemboni yonke iyathuthuka, futhi isifiso samabhizinisi sokwengeza umkhiqizo sinamandla kakhulu. Yize umkhuba wokuhlanganiswa usathuthuka, futhi kusho ukuthi ukuhlanganiswa kuba nzima kakhulu.

Kuyaqondakala ukuthi lo msebenzi uzobandakanya nokwakhiwa nokufakwa kwamaphrojekthi wokuncibilikisa insimbi, kanye nokuqaliswa kokulungiswa nokulungiswa kwezinkinga ezitholwe ekuhlolweni kwangaphambilini. Futhi kulo nyaka umsebenzi wokunciphisa ukukhishwa kwensimbi ongahluziwe uzogxila ekwehliseni ukukhishwa kwensimbi ongahluziwe ezinkampanini ezinokungasebenzi kahle kwezemvelo, ukusetshenziswa kwamandla okuphezulu, kanye namazinga entengo ezobuchwepheshe abuyela emuva, ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuthi ukukhishwa kwensimbi eluhlaza okwenziwe ngo-2021 kuzokwehla ngonyaka- on-unyaka.

Khulisa umkhiqizo ngenkathi unciphisa amandla wokukhiqiza

Yize umthamo wokukhiqizwa kwensimbi uzophinda ucindezelwe, uLange Steel ubikezela ukuthi isidingo sokusetshenziswa kwensimbi sikazwelonke sizoqhubeka nokukhula ngonyaka ka-2021, kanti inani eliphelele lesidingo sensimbi esingahluziwe saseChina unyaka wonke singafinyelela kumathani ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyi-1.1, ukwanda okungaba ngu-5% ngaphezu konyaka odlule. Imininingwane evela ku-National Bureau of Statistics iphinde ikhombise ukuthi kusuka ngoJanuwari kuya kuFebhuwari, ukukhishwa kwensimbi yengulube yasekhaya kukhuphuke ngo-6.4% unyaka nonyaka, nokukhishwa kwensimbi ekrwada kukhuphuke ngo-12.9% unyaka nonyaka.

Ngenkathi kunciphisa umthamo wokukhiqiza ngenkathi kukhiqizwa umkhiqizo, kubukeka "njengendilinga engajwayelekile". Mayelana nalokhu, uXiao Yaqing uthe ukuvuseleleka ngokushesha komnotho, ukuqala kabusha komsebenzi nokukhiqiza, kanye nesidingo sokwakhiwa emikhakheni eyahlukahlukene kunesidingo esikhulu kakhulu sezinto eziningi ezingavuthiwe nezisizayo, kufaka phakathi insimbi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukusetshenziswa kwensimbi komuntu ngamunye kusesekuqhubekeni kwentuthuko uma kuqhathaniswa nengqikithi yezomnotho, futhi kusekhona indawo eningi yentuthuko ekufuneni ukwakhiwa nokuthuthwa kwezimoto.

Engxoxweni nentatheli evela eBeijing Business Daily, uCheng Yu, umcwaningi omkhulu weSikhungo Sokuqonda, uhlaziyele ukuthi ukwehliswa kwamandla kwaqedwa ngokwandiswa kwesidingo. Ngaphansi kokugqugquzela ukuthuthukiswa kwezimboni nezakhiwo nezimoto, isidingo sensimbi sisenamandla, okudala nokwakhiwa kwezigayo zensimbi. Ukuze wandise utshalomali endaweni enenzuzo engcono, amandla okukhiqiza angenasidingo azoncishwa ngaphambi kwesikhathi.

Futhi kulo nyaka, ukuvala amaphutha nokutshalwa kwezimali kwengqalasizinda kuzosebenza njengendawo yokuqala ebalulekile yokukhula komnotho okuzinzile, futhi utshalomali lwezezakhiwo luzoqhubeka lukhule, okuzophinde kusize ukusetshenziswa kwensimbi yasekhaya yaseChina ukuthi iqhubeke nokuqina ngonyaka ka-2021. Qin Yuan futhi ikholelwa ukuthi intengo yamanje yensimbi isakhuphuka, futhi nezinqubomgomo ziyanciphisa izaphulelo zentela yokuthumela kwamanye amazwe futhi zikhuphula ukungeniswa kwamanye amazwe ukuhlangabezana nezidingo zasekhaya.

Ngaphezu kwesidingo semakethe, kufanele futhi sibone ukuthengiswa kwemakethe. UChen Kexin, umhlaziyi omkhulu weLange Steel Economic Research Center, phambilini wahlaziya ukuthi isizathu esenza ukuthi umkhiqizo walonyaka kulindeleke ukuthi uqhubeke nokukhula amandla amasha okukhiqiza insimbi asanda kufakwa eminyakeni yamuva. Ngo-2021, amanye ala maphrojekthi wamakhono amasha azofakwa ekukhiqizeni ngokulandelana, futhi kulindeleke ukuthi kusazoba namashumi ezigidi zamathani. Ngasikhathi sinye, izinga lokusetshenziswa kwamandla nalo liyaqhubeka nokukhuphuka, ukuze ukunwetshwa kokukhishwa kwalo nyaka kusenesikhala esisha.

Izinselelo ezintsha ngaphansi komgomo "wekhabhoni ezimbili"

Ukuze kuzuzwe izinhloso “zokunyuka kwekhabhoni” kanye “nokungathathi hlangothi kwekhabhoni”, ekupheleni kukaDisemba nyakenye, uXiao Yaqing wakwenza kwacaca kwiNational Industry and Informatization Working Conference ukuthi kufanele kugxilwe emgomweni wokuphakanyiswa kwekhabhoni nokungathathi hlangothi kwekhabhoni. ekwenziweni kwezenzo zezimboni ezine-carbon ephansi kanye nobunjiniyela bokukhiqiza obuluhlaza. Njengemboni esebenzisa amandla, imboni yensimbi kumele inciphise ngokuqinile ukukhishwa kwensimbi engahluziwe ukuqinisekisa ukwehla konyaka kokukhishwa kwensimbi ongahluziwe.

Ngokombono kaQin Yuan, ingcindezi embonini yensimbi ngaphansi komgomo “wekhabhoni elikabili” idinga ukubukwa ngokwehlukana: “Ngokuya ngenhla kwekhabhoni, ingcindezi ingase ingabi nkulu kakhulu. Ngokufaka izinqubo ezimfushane kuzinqubo ezinde, kuzosiza empeleni. Ukwehliswa kokukhishwa kwekhabhoni. Enqubeni yokukhiqiza insimbi, kusenezindawo eziningi zokunciphisa ukukhishwa kwekhabhoni, yingakho izinkampani eziningi zensimbi zibeka isikhathi se-carbon peak ngaphambi kuka-2030. ”

Kubikwa ukuthi i- “Steel Industry Carbon Peak and Carbon Reduction Action Plan” yakhe uhlaka olubukeziwe noluthuthukisiwe, kanti imboni yomkhakha wekhabhoni iphokophele ukuqala ukubekwa njengokuthi: ngaphambi kuka-2025, imboni yensimbi izofinyelela inani eliphakeme lokukhishwa kwekhabhoni; ngo-2030, imboni yensimbi izoba nokukhishwa kwekhabhoni. Engaphansi ngama-30% kunenani eliphakeme, kulinganiselwa ukuthi amathani ayizigidi ezingama-420 wokukhishwa kwekhabhoni azoncishiswa.

UQin Yuan ukholelwa ukuthi ukungathathi hlangothi kwekhabhoni kuzobeka ingcindezi enkulu embonini yensimbi. “Ukukhishwa kwekhabhoni kokukhiqizwa kwensimbi okwenziwa isikhathi eside akunakugwenywa. Lokhu kudinga ukwenziwa ngcono okukhulu kwenqubo yomkhakha wensimbi. Kepha ngoba iphoyinti lesikhathi selidlulile, futhi kuya ngomkhakha wensimbi enqubeni yokufeza iziqongo zekhabhoni. Sinjani isimo? ” UQin Yuan utshele intatheli yeBeijing Business Daily.

Ngasikhathi sinye, kufanele kuqashelwe ukuthi imboni yensimbi ngenkathi isusa amandla isesikhulu futhi ingaphansi kwengcindezi. E-2021 (Okweshumi nambili) I-China Iron and Steel Development Forum ebibanjelwe ezinsukwini ezimbalwa ezedlule, uHu Wenrui, isifundiswa seChinese Academy of Engineering, naye wagcizelela wathi: “Imboni yensimbi nensimbi iyimboni enesisi esikhiqiza umoya omkhulu kunayo yonke phakathi kwama-31 imikhakha yokukhiqiza, kubalwa cishe u-15% wokukhishwa okuphelele. ”

Kuyaqondakala ukuthi yize ukukhishwa kwe-carbon dioxide yezwe lami ngethoni ngayinye yensimbi manje kwehla, isamba sisonke sikhulu kakhulu. UXiao Yaqing wathi phambilini ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwamalahle emhlabeni jikelele njengamanje ngethani lensimbi kungu-575kg wamalahle ajwayelekile, uma kuqhathaniswa no-545kg waseChina. Ngenxa yevolumu enkulu yaseChina, kusesekhona amathuba okuthekelwa maqondana nokonga amandla nokunciphisa ukungcola.

I “Steel Industry Carbon Peak and Carbon Reduction Action Plan” isho ngokusobala ukuthi kunezindlela ezinhlanu ezinkulu zokufeza izinjongo zebhizinisi lensimbi eliphakeme kakhulu, okungukuthi, ukukhuthaza ukwakheka okuluhlaza, ukongiwa kwamandla nokusebenza kahle kwamandla, nokwenza ngcono ukusetshenziswa kwamandla nokusebenza kwenqubo, nokwakha iketango lezimboni lezomnotho eliyindilinga. Futhi sebenzisa intuthuko yobuchwepheshe bekhabhoni ephansi.

UCheng Yu uthe ngaphansi kwesidingo se "dual carbon", imboni yensimbi idinga ukushintsha njalo isakhiwo samandla nokusebenza kwamandla, kepha ngasikhathi sinye, ukuguqula ukwakheka kwamandla kusho nokushintsha inqubo ye-metallurgical, okuwukutshalwa kwemali okukhulu. Amandla amaningi okukhiqiza abekade enamakhono afanele kodwa engakabi nokwehla ngokuphelele nawo azosuswa kusenesikhathi, ngakho-ke inzuzo yezigayo zensimbi isazobhekana nezinselelo.


Isikhathi Iposi: May-13-2021